Blood results explainer
If you are participant in the VIBRANT study that has been selected to provide samples, you will receive a report containing the results of a general and immune health screen. There may also be recommendations to take certain actions, for example, to see your GP or to make lifestyle changes. If there are significant abnormalities detected, you will be called by a member of the VIBRANT team to discuss the results and suggest further plans.

An explanation of the different results that will appear on your report are below, along with links to useful websites for more information. If you have concerns about your results, please contact your GP for advice and guidance based on your own situation.

Blood results list:

Haemoglobin – Used to check how many red blood cells are in your blood, too few is called anaemia or too many is called polycythaemia. They have many causes, and this will likely need further testing.
MCV – This describes the average size of red blood cells in a blood sample. It can help diagnose different types of anaemia and other health conditions.
Platelets – These are small cells in the blood that are important for controlling bleeding. There may be too few or too many platelets and there are many causes for each, which usually need further testing to discover. Used to assess general health or investigate bleeding or clotting problems.
White Cell Count – Measures the number of infection and cancer fighting cells (white blood cells). Used to investigate and monitor immune system diseases, allergies, infections, or blood cancers.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) –The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate the body's metabolic rate. TSH is the hormone that controls thyroid function. It is used to support a diagnosis of under or over active thyroid.
Thyroxine – A thyroid hormone that is produced in response to TSH. Measuring it alongside TSH can be used to support a diagnosis of under- or over-active thyroid.
Creatinine – A substance constantly released by your muscles and removed by the kidneys, often measured in a general health screen. A high creatinine may indicate a kidney problem.
Calcium (adjusted) – This electrolyte is important for nerve, muscle, bone, and teeth health. It is measured to investigate in kidney, bone, hormone, or nerve disease, or if symptoms of abnormal calcium levels are present. The calcium value is adjusted to the amount of protein in the blood.
Total Protein – The total amount of protein in the blood. Approximately half of this is albumin, the rest perform various functions throughout the body. An abnormal value can be caused by many different problems and cannot be interpreted alone.
Albumin – A protein produced by the liver with many functions. Low value may be a sign that your gut, liver, or kidneys are not working correctly, that you have a nutritional deficiency, or that you have long term illness.
Alanine aminotransferase – An enzyme found inside liver cells. High levels mean you may have an unhealthy or damaged liver
Alkaline Phosphatase – This is an enzyme present in the liver and bone. It is elevated when there are gallbladder or liver problems, or increased bone activity (for example when there is cancer, infection, or fractures).
Bilirubin – Is produced during red blood cell breakdown and processing in the liver. Higher than normal levels of bilirubin may indicate liver or gallbladder problems, or increased destruction of red blood cells. Some people have a condition which causes high bilirubin without any liver disease.
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) – A substance produced in response to inflammation or infection and in a wide range of other situations. It is not specific and further work is needed to find the cause of the abnormal result
HbA1c – Measures the average blood sugar levels over time. It can be used to help diagnose type 2 diabetes, identify those at risk of type 2 diabetes, and monitor response to diabetes treatment.
Immunoglobulin G / A / M – Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are proteins used by the immune system to fight infections. We have measured Immunoglobulins A, G, and M in your blood. Each has a different function and the amount of each can help identify immune system problems.
Serum Protein Electrophoresis – This test separates the proteins in a blood sample into several groups based on their electrical charge and size. This test is used to identify whether the protein profile of the blood is normal. We can use this test to identify and monitor a blood cancer called multiple myeloma.
Serum Free Light Chains – Every antibody has a component called a light chain. We measure two types of light chain, kappa and lambda, to see if there is an imbalance of the light chains; This tells there may be too many of one type of antibody. This could indicate a blood disorder such as multiple myeloma.
COVID-19 Spike Protein Antibodies – Antibodies produced by the body against part of the surface COVID-19 virus. Indicates an immune response to either previous COVID-19 infection or COVID-19 vaccination
COVID-19 Nucleocapsid Antibodies – Antibodies produced by the body against the core of the COVID-19 virus. Indicates an immune response to previous COVID-19 infection.
Hepatitis B surface antibody – A positive test result indicates that you are protected against the hepatitis B virus, because of either vaccination or previous infection. If this is found in blood, you are not infected and cannot spread hepatitis.
Varicella-zoster Virus Antibodies – A positive result means you are protected from Chickenpox or Shingles virus, also known as the varicella-zoster virus (). This protection is usually acquired following infection as a child, and you remain protected for a long period of time.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibody and antigen test – Looks for the body’s response to HIV and for pieces of HIV. A positive result indicates infection with HIV more than two weeks before the test. If you test positive, you will need further tests to confirm if you have an HIV infection.
Lymphocyte Subsets – This test measures different types of lymphocytes, which are part of the family of white blood cells that are important for fighting infections. Having low numbers of lymphocytes or an imbalance in their numbers may mean you have an immune system disease or a type of blood cancer

For more information see:
Symptom Checker, Health Information and Medicines Guide | Patient –
Patient Education on Blood, Urine, and Other Lab Tests | Lab Tests Online-UK –